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Radical Resistance Ideas & Symbols

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Outlaws


Resistance Movements

A resistance movement (full article) is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability. It may seek to achieve its objectives through either the use of nonviolent resistance (sometimes called civil resistance), or the use of force, whether armed or unarmed. In many cases, as for example in Norway in the Second World War, a resistance movement may employ both violent and non-violent methods, usually operating under different organizations and acting in different phases or geographical areas within a country.


On the lawfulness of armed resistance movements in international law, there has been a dispute between states since at least 1899, when the first major codification of the laws of war in the form of a series of international treaties took place. In the Preamble to the 1899 Hague Convention II on Land War, the Martens Clause was introduced as a compromise wording for the dispute between the Great Powers who considered francs-tireurs to be unlawful combatants subject to execution on capture and smaller states who maintained that they should be considered lawful combatants. More recently the 1977 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, referred in Article 1. Paragraph 4 to armed conflicts "... in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination and alien occupation and against racist regimes..." This phraseology contains many ambiguities that cloud the issue of who is or is not a legitimate combatant. Hence depending on the perspective of a state's government, a resistance movement may or may not be labelled a terrorist group based on whether the members of a resistance movement are considered lawful or unlawful combatants and whether they are recognised as having a right to resist occupation. Ultimately, the distinction is a political judgment.


Civil Resistance

Civil resistance (full article) is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime. Civil resistance operates through appeals to the adversary, pressure and coercion: it can involve systematic attempts to undermine the adversary's sources of power, both domestic and international. Forms of action have included demonstrations, vigils and petitions; strikes, go-slows, boycotts and emigration movements; and sit-ins, occupations, and the creation of parallel institutions of government. Civil resistance movements' motivations for avoiding violence are generally related to context, including a society's values and its experience of war and violence, rather than to any absolute ethical principle. Cases of civil resistance can be found throughout history and in many modern struggles, against both tyrannical rulers and democratically elected governments. The phenomenon of civil resistance is often associated with the advancement of democracy.


Further Materials

Reading:


Choosing the Margin as a Space of Radical Openness -- bell hooks


The Coming Insurrection -- Invisible Committee


Always Almost Here Right Now -- Elli Palmer

Only the Lies are True: Skin and Stereotype in Queer Portraiture -- Elli Palmer

Seeing in the Dark: Queer Bodies in Love -- Elli Palmer

My Body is Mythology: Imagining a Mystic Femme Future -- Elli Palmer

Read Me the Poetry of My Body: Queer Language and Utopic Dreams -- Elli Palmer


AK Press


Counter-Planning From the Kitchen -- Nicole Cox and Silvia Federici


Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction and Feminist Struggle -- Silvia Federici


Feminism and the Politics of the Commons -- Silvia Federici